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Cognitive Therapy Of Personality Disorders, Thi...

Talk therapy, also called psychotherapy, is sometimes used to treat antisocial personality disorder. Therapy may include, for example, anger and violence management, treatment for problems with alcohol or drugs, and treatment for other mental health conditions.

Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders, Thi...


However, studies assessing the putative role of tinnitus distress longitudinally are scarce. Recently, Kleinstäuber and colleagues18 investigated the role of personality traits on internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) in chronic tinnitus patients. The results indicated that different traits can predict the outcome of an iCBT intervention after different time periods (e.g., 3, 6, 12 months after treatment), underscoring the often overlooked influence of personality on treatment outcomes in tinnitus. However, some questions remain unanswered: It is yet not clear if the effects of personality can predict tinnitus-related distress over time, disregard of whether a patient tried any type of treatment or not. It is also unclear whether personality mediates the outcome of psychological-based interventions or, in general, mediates all kinds of tinnitus-related interventions. From a clinical perspective, these open questions are of utmost importance to better understand differences in clinically relevant changes of tinnitus symptomatology. In the study at hand, we aimed at (1) replicating the previous results obtained by Langguth and colleagues13, but with a larger sample size; (2) investigating which facets of relevant personality traits account for tinnitus distress; (3) investigating the role of personality traits on tinnitus distress over time; and, of central interest, (4) evaluating whether such traits may be of clinically relevance to the treatment response.

Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck. CT is one therapeutic approach within the larger group of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) and was first expounded by Beck in the 1960s. Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model, which states that thoughts, feelings and behavior are all connected, and that individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses. This involves the individual working with the therapist to develop skills for testing and changing beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviors.[1] A cognitive case conceptualization is developed by the cognitive therapist as a guide to understand the individual's internal reality, select appropriate interventions and identify areas of distress.

Precursors of certain aspects of cognitive therapy have been identified in various ancient philosophical traditions, particularly Stoicism.[2] For example, Beck's original treatment manual for depression states, "The philosophical origins of cognitive therapy can be traced back to the Stoic philosophers".[3]

This new cognitive approach came into conflict with the behaviorism common at the time, which claimed that talk of mental causes was not scientific or meaningful, and that assessing stimuli and behavioral responses was the best way to practice psychology. However, the 1970s saw a general "cognitive revolution" in psychology. Behavioral modification techniques and cognitive therapy techniques became joined, giving rise to a common concept of cognitive behavioral therapy. Although cognitive therapy has often included some behavioral components, advocates of Beck's particular approach sought to maintain and establish its integrity as a distinct, standardized form of cognitive behavioral therapy in which the cognitive shift is the key mechanism of change.[6]

As cognitive therapy continued to grow in popularity, the non-profit "Academy of Cognitive Therapy" was created in 1998[8] to accredit cognitive therapists, create a forum for members to share research and interventions, and to educate the public about cognitive therapy and related mental health issues.[9] The academy later changed its name to the "Academy of Cognitive & Behavioral Therapies".

People who are working with a cognitive therapist often practice more flexible ways to think and respond, learning to ask themselves whether their thoughts are completely true, and whether those thoughts are helping them to meet their goals. Thoughts that do not meet this description may then be shifted to something more accurate or helpful, leading to more positive emotion, more desirable behavior, and movement toward the person's goals. Cognitive therapy takes a skill-building approach, where the therapist helps the person to learn and practice these skills independently, eventually "becoming their own therapist."

Meditation and mindfulness, though rooted in eastern traditions, have been increasingly embraced in western psychology. However, questions remain regarding the mechanisms through which the beneficial effects of mindfulness occur. The present study aimed to address cognitive fusion as a potential mediator between mindfulness and negative affect and whether the mindfulness-cognitive fusion link is moderated by personality factors in an international sample of frequent meditators.

An international sample of 739 frequent meditators completed measures of mindfulness (Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire), cognitive fusion (Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire), negative affect (Brief Symptom Checklist), and personality (Big Five Inventory) in an online survey. Using SPSS Process Macro, cognitive fusion was examined as a mediator between mindfulness and negative affect. Furthermore, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism were investigated as moderators in the mediation model.

Meditation, an umbrella term encompassing a wide range of practices with roots in ancient, Eastern contemplative traditions, has in recent decades found increasing recognition in academic psychology. Particularly since the introduction of mindfulness to Western psychology by Kabat-Zinn, mindfulness and meditation have been researched abundantly and implemented in various approaches of psychotherapy, including Acceptance Commitment Therapy [1]. Conceptualized as a way of paying attention with a focus on awareness, the present moment and non-judgment [2, 3], the construct of mindfulness can be considered a heightened form of attention, and as such, a cognitive phenomenon itself [4, 5]. As a corollary of this operationalization, mindfulness can be viewed as a psychological measure of intrinsic capacities that can be cultivated through meditation [6].

All three constructs addressed, namely (1) mindfulness, (2) cognitive fusion as part of psychological flexibility, and (3) negative affect have been shown to be associated with personality, specifically with neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion [32, 33]. Personality traits refer to relatively stable and enduring individual differences in patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, influencing how we interact with the world. For example, individuals with high scores on neuroticism have been shown to be less psychologically flexible while individuals with high extroversion have been shown to be more psychologically flexible [34]. Given the evidence of such associations between personality factors and psychological flexibility, it is of importance to investigate whether the relationship between an adaptive skill like mindfulness and psychological flexibility, which is thought to be increased by mindfulness, is impacted by presence of specific personality traits. Despite limited research on the role of personality characteristics in mindfulness, personality has previously been proposed to play a moderating role in mindfulness, based on findings of greater effects of mindfulness training in students with the personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness by [35]. While mindfulness and psychological flexibility have repeatedly been shown to be associated with personality, so far only one study has investigated the interrelation of all three constructs. According to [32], neuroticism was negatively associated with mindfulness and psychological flexibility while conscientiousness was positively associated with mindfulness and psychological flexibility. Extraversion was reported to be positively associated with psychological flexibility [33], however both negative and positive correlations between extraversion and mindfulness were found in the literature [36].

Given the significant associations between mindfulness, cognitive fusion, negative affect, and personality, the present study proposes a moderated atemporal mediation model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of mindfulness for negative affect in a cross-sectional design. Based on the substantial role these variables play, individually and in combination, with regard to the risk of negative affect and distress it is important to examine their effect in a combined model. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the above constructs in one model and specifically in a population of meditators from the general population. As amount of time spent on meditation practice was shown to be associated with mindfulness scores on self-report questionnaires [37], it can be reasoned that the effect between the above-mentioned variables will be particularly present in this diverse sample of meditators including a wide range of levels of mindfulness experience. Therefore, investigating the effect in this population elucidates effects of frequent mindfulness practice on negative affect outside of clinical application, but with an implementation of these practices comparable to clinical interventions.

The present study aims to address the question whether the association between mindfulness and negative affect can be explained by cognitive fusion. Further, the question whether this mediation model is moderated by personality characteristics will be examined. To investigate the proposed model, four hypotheses will be tested: It is hypothesized that (1) levels of mindfulness are negatively associated with negative affect; (2) levels of cognitive fusion are positively associated with negative affect; (3) cognitive fusion partially mediates the relationship between mindfulness and negative affect and lastly, (4) the personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, and extraversion moderate the relationship between mindfulness and cognitive fusion. 041b061a72


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